T. D. Ngo, A. Kashani, G. Imbalzano, K. T. Nguyen, and D. Hui, Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges, Compos. Part B Eng, vol.143, pp.172-196, 2017.

H. Wu, Recent Developments in Polymers/Polymer Nanocomposites for Additive Manufacturing, Prog. Mater. Sci, vol.111, p.100638, 2019.

Y. Guo, Engineering flame retardant biodegradable polymer nanocomposites and their application in 3D printing, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.137, pp.205-215, 2017.

H. Wu, Additive manufacturing of flame-retardant polyamide 6 nanocomposites via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), International SAMPE Technical Conference, 2019.

W. P. Fahy and J. H. Koo, Advancement in the study of 3D printable flame retardant polyamide 11 nanocomposites, International SAMPE Technical Conference, 2019.

H. Wu, M. Sulkis, J. Driver, A. Saade-castillo, A. Thompson et al., Multi-functional
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02905716

, ULTEM TM 1010 composite filaments for additive manufacturing using Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), Addit. Manuf, vol.24, pp.298-306, 2018.

L. Geoffroy, F. Samyn, M. Jimenez, and S. Bourbigot, Additive manufacturing of fire-retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate, Polym. Adv. Technol, vol.30, issue.7, pp.1878-1890, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02165588

Z. Tianwei, L. Hao, H. Zhiyue, D. Zhiming, and W. Yong, Active substances study in fire extinguishing by water mist with potassium salt additives based on thermoanalysis and thermodynamics, Appl. Therm. Eng, vol.122, pp.429-438, 2017.

J. D. Birchah, On the Mechanism of Flame Inhibition by Alkali Metal Salts, Combust. Flame, vol.14, pp.85-96, 1970.

C. T. Ewing, F. R. Faith, J. T. Hughes, and H. W. Carhart, Flame Extinguishment Properties of Dry Chemicals : Extinction Concentrations for Small Diffusion Pan Fires, Fire Technol, pp.134-149, 1989.

V. I. Babushok, G. T. Linteris, P. Hoorelbeke, D. Roosendans, and K. Van-wingerden, Flame Inhibition by Potassium-Containing Compounds, Combust. Sci. Technol, vol.189, issue.12, pp.2039-2055, 2017.

D. Grossman, Samsung's 'Firevase' Is a Smashing Fire Extinguisher

L. Geoffroy, F. Samyn, M. Jimenez, and S. Bourbigot, Innovative 3D printed design to conceive highly fire-retardant multi-material, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.169, p.108992, 2019.

W. Cheng, X. Hu, J. Xie, and Y. Zhao, An intelligent gel designed to control the spontaneous combustion of coal: Fire prevention and extinguishing properties, Fuel, vol.210, pp.826-835, 2017.

X. Ren, Novel sodium silicate/polymer composite gels for the prevention of spontaneous combustion of coal, J. Hazard. Mater, vol.371, pp.643-654, 2019.

W. R. Illeperuma, P. Rothemund, Z. Suo, and J. J. Vlassak, Fire-Resistant Hydrogel-Fabric Laminates: A Simple Concept That May Save Lives, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol.8, issue.3, pp.2071-2077, 2016.

X. F. Cui, Water-retaining, though and self-healing hydrogels and their uses as fireresistant materials, Polym. Chem, vol.10, pp.5151-5158, 2019.

L. Hsiao, L. Jing, K. Li, H. Yang, Y. Li et al., Carbon nanotube-integrated conductive hydrogels as multifunctional robotic skin, Carbon N. Y, vol.161, pp.784-793, 2020.

Q. Ren, Y. Zhang, J. Li, and J. C. Li, Synergistic Effect of Vermiculite on the Intumescent Flame Retardance of Polypropylene, J. Appl. Polym. Sci, vol.120, issue.2, pp.1225-1233, 2010.

R. B. Hanken, Effect of natural and expanded vermiculite clays on the properties of eco-friendly biopolyethylene-vermiculite clay biocomposites, Compos. Part B Eng, vol.175, 2018.

A. A. Cain, M. G. Plummer, S. E. Murray, L. Bolling, O. Regev et al., Ironcontaining, high aspect ratio clay as nanoarmor that imparts substantial thermal/flame protection to polyurethane with a single electrostatically-deposited bilayer, J. Mater. Chem. A, vol.2, issue.41, pp.17609-17617, 2014.

S. Lazar, F. Carosio, A. L. Davesne, M. Jimenez, S. Bourbigot et al., Extreme Heat Shielding of Clay/Chitosan Nanobrick Wall on Flexible Foam, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol.10, issue.37, pp.31686-31696, 2018.

P. Arkema-functional, Evatane 28-05: Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (VA) copolymer with high VA content, 2014.

C. Hoffendahl, G. Fontaine, S. Duquesne, F. Taschner, M. Mezger et al., The fire retardant mechanism of ethylene vinyl acetate elastomer (EVM) containing aluminium trihydroxide and melamine phosphate, RSC Adv, vol.4, issue.39, pp.20185-20199, 2014.

. Sigma-aldrich, Product Specification: Sodium alginate, 2015.

. Poly,

, What is agar-agar, Agargel, available

M. M. Perez-madrigal, J. Torras, J. Casanovas, M. Häring, C. Aleman et al., Paradigm Shift for Preparing Versatile M 2+ -Free Gels from Unmodified Sodium Alginate, vol.18, pp.2967-2979, 2017.

C. Riedo, F. Caldera, T. Poli, and O. Chiantore, Poly(vinylalcohol)-borate hydrogels with improved features for the cleaning of cultural heritage surfaces, Herit. Sci, vol.3, issue.23, pp.1-11, 2015.

C. Karakasyan, Cold gelation of alginates induced by monovalent cations

, Biomacromolecules, vol.11, issue.11, pp.2966-2975, 2010.

B. Schartel and T. R. Hull, Development of fire-retarded materials -Interpretation of cone calorimeter data, pp.327-354, 2007.

M. M. Martin and L. Lindqvist, The pH dependence of fluorescein fluorescence, J. Lumin, vol.10, pp.381-390, 1975.

E. K. Lavrent, S. G. Starodubtsev, A. R. Khokhlov, V. Volkov, and K. A. Dembo, Effect of Polymer Nature on the Structure and Properties of Gel Composites with Incorporated Bentonite Particles, Colloid J, vol.70, issue.5, pp.604-608, 2008.

S. G. Starodoubtsev, E. K. Lavrentyeva, A. R. Khokhlov, G. Allegra, A. Famulari et al.,

. Meille, Mechanism of Smectic Arrangement of Montmorillonite and Bentonite Clay Platelets Incorporated in Gels of Poly (Acrylamide) Induced by the Interaction with Cationic Surfactants, Langmuir, vol.22, pp.369-374, 2006.

P. Porion, M. Mukhtar, S. Meyer, A. M. Fauge, J. R. Van-der et al., Nematic Ordering of Suspensions of Charged Anisotropic Colloids Detected by 23Na Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, J. Phys. Chem. B, vol.105, pp.10505-10514, 2001.

G. Schmidt, A. I. Nakatani, P. D. Butler, and C. C. Han, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering from Viscoelastic Polymer -Clay Solutions, Macromolecules, vol.35, pp.4725-4732, 2002.

M. Huang, Y. Hou, Y. Li, D. Wang, and L. Zhang, High performances of dual network PVA hydrogel modified by PVP using borax as the structure-forming accelerator, Des. Monomers Polym, vol.20, issue.1, pp.505-513, 2017.

K. Haraguchi, K. Murata, and Y. Kimura, Uniaxial and plane orientations of clay platelets in nanocomposite gels with different compositions during stretching and recovery, Polymer (Guildf), vol.116, pp.439-446, 2017.

G. W. Brindley, Part III -Methods of Identifying Clays and the Interpretation of Results, Calys and Clay Minerals, pp.119-129, 1952.

C. Marcos, Y. C. Arango, and I. Rodriguez, X-ray diffraction studies of the thermal behaviour of commercial vermiculites, Appl. Clay Sci, vol.42, issue.3-4, pp.368-378, 2009.

C. Marcos, Y. C. Arango, and I. Rodriguez, X-ray diffraction studies of the thermal behaviour of commercial vermiculites, Appl. Clay Sci, vol.42, issue.3-4, pp.368-378, 2009.

X. Gong, Z. Guo, and Z. Wang, Variation of Char Structure during Anthracite Pyrolysis Catalyzed by Fe 2 O 3 and Its Influence on Char Combustion Reactivity, Energy Fuels, vol.36, issue.10, pp.1-6, 2009.

B. Bellich, M. Borgogna, M. Cok, and A. Cesaro, Release Properties of Hydrogels : Water Evaporation from Alginate Gel Beads, Food Biophys, vol.6, pp.259-266, 2011.

D. R. Rohindra, A. Nand, and J. R. Khurma, Swelling properties of chitosan hydrogels, South Pacific J. Nat. Sci, vol.22, pp.32-35, 2004.